Category: History Culture

Inventing Software: The Rise of "Computer-Related" Patents by Kenneth Nichols

By Kenneth Nichols

From the 1st traces of the preface of this paintings by way of Kenneth Nichols, it's obvious that what was once in the beginning deliberate to be of extra concise scope grew right into a dialogue of all issues linked to software program patents, and therein lies the rub. it truly is attention-grabbing that the writer notes in precisely the second one sentence that he "came to the realization that the details of the controversy [within the programming group over the desirability and supreme impact of software program patents]...are now not that fascinating or enlightening". relatively? i locate it ordinary that somebody with a J.D. and an M.S. in laptop technology could make the sort of assertion. after all, his follow-up assertion that the "larger and extra vital tale" includes the truth that "software improvement is a brand new form of inventive task, person who defies the neat and collectively unique categorizations of highbrow attempt as both creative or medical" will be precise, Frederick P. Brooks wrote commonly in this subject in his vintage tome on software program engineering lengthy prior to the USPTO accredited the submitting of comparable patents. thankfully, Nichols dedicates such a lot of his paintings to the extra uninteresting material, even supposing regrettably the reasons supplied are a section dull themselves. placing apart the truth that this booklet was once written within the overdue Nineteen Nineties, notwithstanding, there's a lot to provide right here to the pro software program engineer in addition to the non-technical administration group linked to software program pursuits of this nature. for instance, the author's concise 20-page advent introduces good a lot of the historical past subject material. Nichols additionally discusses good the subjects of algorithms, programming, computing device technology, software program engineering, and the way patents slot in with this universe. the center of the textual content, the 3rd bankruptcy which offers numerous software program patent examples, besides the fact that, is particularly poorly built for my part, even though the reason in its first few pages on significant phrases akin to "novelty" and "nonobviousness" is concisely written. The diagram only if depicts thoughts on the topic of nonobviousness, written within the form of a Venn diagram, is mainly well matched for the dialogue. The fourth bankruptcy covers the software program patent controversy, and the reader is definitely rewarded in my view while achieving this element within the ebook after 50 pages of rambling. it really is unusual that the 7th bankruptcy is devoted to a definition of programming, a dialogue most suitable for the introductory pages of the ebook, even supposing many of the prices supplied in those pages are really enjoyable, comparable to the W. Saba quote from an IEEE periodical that "hardware engineers have long past extra than their software program opposite numbers simply because layout grew to become a science...Unlike engineers, software program engineers nonetheless deal in magic and witchcraft". apparently adequate, it used to be only in the near past that The Economist mentioned the emergence of laptop technology because the foundational department of technological know-how. final of all, whereas the 6th bankruptcy boldly starts through proclaiming "we've ultimately come to the nice half" since it offers with innovations for software program builders, simply 6 pages are devoted to the topic! If Nichols is to put in writing extra on software program patents, i like to recommend a whole ebook devoted to ideas.

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Holy resilience : the Bible's traumatic origins by David M. Carr

By David M. Carr

Human trauma gave start to the Bible, indicates eminent non secular pupil David Carr. The Bible’s skill to talk to discomfort is a big the reason for this is that the sacred texts of Judaism and Christianity have retained their relevance for hundreds of thousands of years. In his attention-grabbing and provocative reinterpretation of the Bible’s origins, the writer tells the tale of ways the Jewish humans and Christian neighborhood needed to adapt to outlive a number of catastrophes and the way their holy scriptures either mirrored and bolstered every one religion’s resilient nature.
 
Carr’s thought-provoking research demonstrates what number of the important tenets of biblical faith, together with monotheism and the belief of agony as God’s retribution, are elements that supplied Judaism and Christianity with the energy and suppleness to suffer within the face of catastrophe. furthermore, the writer explains how the Jewish Bible used to be deeply formed via the Jewish exile in Babylon, an occasion that it not often describes, and the way the Christian Bible was once likewise formed by means of the unspeakable disgrace of getting a crucified savior.

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Medienrecht by Prof.Dr. Marian Paschke (auth.)

By Prof.Dr. Marian Paschke (auth.)

Das Recht der Medien hat sich in der j}ngsten Vergangenheit verst{rkt zu einer einheitlichen Rechtsdisziplin entwickelt. Geregelt wird das moderne Massenkommunikationswesen. Es ber}cksichtigt die Entwicklung des privaten Rundfunk- und Fernsehwesens und steht unter wachsendem Einflu~ des Europ{ischen Rechts. Die herausgestellten Grunds{tze, die sich aus der Verfassung des Medienrechts als Querschnittsdisziplin der S{ulen des Privatrechts, des \ffentlichen Rechts und des Strafrechts ergeben, machen die Materie obvious und ziehen einen roten Faden zur Praxis. Es richtet sich sowohl an Studenten als auch an all diejenigen, die Rechtsfragen des modernen Medienwesens erkennen und beantworten und die diese Materie unter komplexen rechtlichen Gesichtspunkten verstehen wollen.

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Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive by Arvind Narayanan, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew

By Arvind Narayanan, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew Miller, Steven Goldfeder

Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies presents a finished advent to the progressive but usually misunderstood new applied sciences of electronic foreign money. no matter if you're a pupil, software program developer, tech entrepreneur, or researcher in laptop technological know-how, this authoritative and self-contained publication tells you every thing you want to find out about the hot worldwide cash for the web age.

How do Bitcoin and its block chain truly paintings? How safe are your bitcoins? How nameless are their clients? Can cryptocurrencies be regulated? those are the various many questions this ebook solutions. It starts off via tracing the historical past and improvement of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, after which provides the conceptual and functional foundations you must engineer safe software program that interacts with the Bitcoin community in addition to to combine rules from Bitcoin into your personal initiatives. issues comprise decentralization, mining, the politics of Bitcoin, altcoins and the cryptocurrency surroundings, the way forward for Bitcoin, and more.

  • An crucial creation to the recent applied sciences of electronic currency
  • Covers the heritage and mechanics of Bitcoin and the block chain, protection, decentralization, anonymity, politics and law, altcoins, and masses more
  • Features an accompanying web site that incorporates educational video clips for every bankruptcy, homework difficulties, programming assignments, and lecture slides
  • Also compatible to be used with the authors' Coursera on-line course
  • Electronic suggestions guide (available in simple terms to professors)

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The Boundaries of Humanity by James J. Sheehan, Morton Sosna

By James J. Sheehan, Morton Sosna

To the age-old debate over what it capability to be human, the rather new fields of sociobiology and synthetic intelligence carry new, if no longer unavoidably suitable, insights. What have those fields in universal? Have they affected the way in which we outline humanity? those and different well timed questions are addressed with colourful individuality through the authors of the limits of Humanity . prime researchers in either sociobiology and synthetic intelligence mix their reflections with these of philosophers, historians, and social scientists, whereas the editors discover the old and modern contexts of the talk of their introductions. the consequences in their person arguments, and the customarily heated controversies generated through organic determinism or via mechanical types of brain, visit the center of up to date clinical, philosophical, and humanistic reports.

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Constructions of Space IV: Further Developments in Examining by Mark K. George

By Mark K. George

Critical reports and analyses of house have gotten more and more universal in scholarship, even though it isn't really regularly transparent how such reports continue, what theoretical works tell them, or what are their capability merits for religious study. This quantity is helping handle these questions, by means of together with the paintings of biblical students operating in a variety of ancient sessions and destinations, from Deuteronomy's idealized areas to the Qumran group at the shorelines of the useless Sea.
Each of the students during this quantity is actively concerned with the severe learn of house, having awarded paintings in this subject in local, nationwide, or foreign conferences of the Society of Biblical Literature. The essays integrated during this quantity mix theoretical and interpretive matters within the research of texts from the Hebrew Bible and the lifeless Sea Scrolls. students in religious study, Archaeology, spiritual reviews, and Anthropology will locate this to be a worthy source for gaining new understandings of the serious examine of area in antiquity.

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The Natural History of the Bible: An Environmental by Daniel Hillel

By Daniel Hillel

Traversing river valleys, steppes, deserts, rain-fed forests, farmlands, and seacoasts, the early Israelites skilled the entire contrasting ecological domain names of the traditional close to East. As they grew from a nomadic extended family to develop into a geographical region in Canaan, they interacted with indigenous societies of the sector, absorbed selective components in their cultures, and built-in them right into a substantially new tradition in their personal. Daniel Hillel unearths the interaction among the tradition of the Israelites and the environments during which it developed. greater than simply affecting their fabric life, the region's ecology motivated their perspectives of construction and the writer, their notion of humanity's function on the earth, their very own specified id and future, and their ethics.In The usual historical past of the Bible, Hillel indicates how the eclectic reviews of the Israelites formed their belief of the overarching team spirit governing nature's diversified manifestations. the place different societies idolized disparate and capricious forces of nature, the Israelites discerned crucial concord and better ethical goal. encouraged by means of visionary prophets, they appeared to a novel, omnipresent, all-powerful strength of nature mandating justice and compassion in human affairs. Monotheism used to be promoted as country coverage and centralized within the Temple of Jerusalem. After it used to be destroyed and the folks have been exiled, a suite of scrolls distilling the nation's thoughts and non secular quest served because the concentration of religion in its stead.A widespread environmental scientist who surveyed Israel's land and water assets and has labored on agricultural improvement tasks through the quarter, Daniel Hillel is a uniquely certified specialist at the typical background of the lands of the Bible. Combining his clinical paintings with a passionate, life-long research of the Bible, Hillel deals new views on biblical perspectives of our surroundings and the starting place of moral monotheism as an outgrowth of the Israelites' internalized reports. (Vol. 20, No. 2)

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