Advanced techniques in image-guided brain and spine surgery by Isabelle M. Germano

By Isabelle M. Germano

A accomplished evaluate of the state of the art know-how at the moment on hand for neuronavigation. it is going to give you the reader with the scientific purposes of this expertise to varied facets of cranial and spinal surgical procedure.

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49 Apparently Shannon asked von Neumann what name he should give to his measure of uncertainty. ” 29 does not provide a robust measure of image alignment. The use of this measure involves the implicit assumption that large regions in the two images being registered increase their degree of overlap as the images approach the correct alignment. If the overlap between large regions of the images is not maximal when the images are correctly aligned, then generally the joint entropy will not be minimal at this point.

Since the magnitude of the distortion is inversely proportional to the frequencyencoding gradient strength, increasing the strength of the gradient will reduce the spatial error. 5 mT/m. Many current MR image pulse sequences use a substantially higher gradient strength than that used for the image in Figure 2–4. Gradient-echo MR images are often acquired with frequency-encoding gradient magnitudes of approximately 5 mT/m; the object-induced geometrical distortion for such images would be approximately one-third of the distortion observed for the image in this figure.

7 for bone–tissue interfaces. Thus echoes corresponding to bone–tissue interfaces have high signal amplitude and are easily identified. The distance from the transducer to the interface corresponding to an echo is easily calculated as d = ut/2, where d is the distance, u is the speed of sound, and t is the time interval between the initial sound pulse and the received echo. By tracking the position of an A-mode ultrasound transducer, it is possible to calculate the position of a bone surface point as the position of the ultrasound transducer face plus the distance to the bone– tissue interface along the ultrasound beam axis.

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