Acoustical Measurements by Leo L. Beranek

By Leo L. Beranek

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0p) = £ + a x *( M ; 0, 1,03 0p). 11) The unknown parameters are estimated from the observed data. Given a set of data, a function 6 of the data values may be chosen as an estimator of 9. The estimator 0 is a random variable and has a probability distribution. The goodness of 9 as an estimator of 9 depends on how close 0 typically is to 9. The deviation of 0 from 9 may be decomposed into bias - a tendency to give estimates that are consistently higher or lower than the true value - and variability - the random deviation of the estimate from the true value that occurs even for estimators that have no bias.

7 is for sample size 80. 25. The first two sample L-moments are well-known statistics. 22). The quantities I\,l2 ( o r 0> h, a n d U are useful summary statistics of a sample of data. As an example we calculate them for six sets of annual maximum windspeed data taken from Simiu, Changery, and Filliben (1979). 8. 12) is the Gringorten plotting position (Gringorten, 1963; Cunnane, 1978). 61). 9. 3 the sites are listed in increasing order of L-skewness. The Macon data set has flattened upper and lower tails on the extreme-value plot.

The exact nature of the problems that may affect the data depend on the kind of data that were measured. For environmental data for which a frequency analysis is being attempted, two kinds of error are particularly important and plausible. First, data values may be incorrect. Incorrect recording or transcription of data values is easily done and casts doubt on any subsequent frequency analysis of the data. Second, the circumstances under which the data were collected may have changed over time.

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