Abiding courage: African American migrant women and the East by Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo

By Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo

Among 1940 and 1945, millions of African americans migrated from the South to the East Bay sector of northern California looking for the social and monetary mobility that was once linked to the region's increasing security and its acceptance for better racial tolerance. Drawing on fifty oral interviews with migrants in addition to on archival and different written files, Abiding braveness examines the stories of the African American ladies who migrated west and outfitted groups there.Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo vividly indicates how girls made the transition from southern family and box paintings to jobs in an business, wartime economic system. even as, they have been suffering to maintain their households jointly, developing new families, and developing community-sustaining networks and associations. whereas white girls shouldered the double burden of salary hard work and house responsibilities, black ladies confronted even larger demanding situations: discovering homes and faculties, finding church buildings and scientific companies, and contending with racism. through concentrating on ladies, Lemke-Santangelo offers new views on the place and the way social switch happens and the way group is demonstrated and maintained.

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When you come to borrow my money you didn't have to beg. " 7 White school administrators, making no pretense of equality, systematically undercut the aspirations and efforts of black parents, children, and teachers. Throughout the South, school districts diverted funds to white pupils, while neglecting the needs of black students. Disparities were even greater on a county-by-county basis: cotton counties had the lowest expenditures per black pupil. Black schools in these areas also operated on a shorter year than white schools, because white plantation owners set the school terms to coincide with their desire for cheap black labor to cultivate and harvest cotton; clearly, the white South did not view black child labor as a problem.

Paper) 1. Afro-American womenCaliforniaSan Francisco Bay AreaSocial conditions. 2. Afro-AmericansCaliforniaSan Francisco Bay AreaMigrationsHistory20th century. 3. Rural-urban migrationCaliforniaSan Francisco Bay AreaHistory20th century. 4. )Social conditions. I. Title. 4'600496073dc20CIP Page v For my mother and father Page vii Contents Acknowledgments xi Introduction 1 1 It Was Just Like Living in Two Worlds. Growing Up in the Jim Crow South, 1910-1940. 11 2 To Make the Two Worlds One. Migration from the South to the San Francisco East Bay Area 49 3 I Never Thought I'd Have to Create All That.

In towns and cities, black Mississippians limited their contact with hostile whites by patronizing their own businesses, doctors, lawyers, pharmacists, banks, and insurance companies. 34 However, in both rural and urban areas, black Mississippians were forced to move with caution. Reading a northern newspaper, acquiring a small amount of property, and failing to abide by local and idiosyncratic codes of deference could bring harsh and swift reprisal. Throughout the state, social, political, and economic hierarchies were maintained by an all-white justice system and the threat of racial violence.

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Categories: African American Studies