A Grammar of Kham (Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions) by David E. Watters

By David E. Watters

It is a accomplished grammatical documentation of Kham, a formerly undescribed language from west-central Nepal, belonging to the Tibeto-Burman language relatives. The language has an strange constitution, containing a few features which are of instant relevance to present paintings on linguistic concept, together with break up ergativity and its demonstrative process. Its verb morphology has implications for the certainty of the historical past of the complete Tibeto-Burman kin. The e-book, according to large fieldwork, presents copious examples during the exposition. will probably be a worthwhile source for typologists and normal linguists alike.

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The rounding disappeared in the other branch (represented by modern Takale and Maikoti) so that only those rounded forms inherited from the proto-language manifest the feature. Following a Takale/Maikoti split, Takale lost the prefix altogether, and Maikoti retained the prefix (without further modifications). The tree in figure 4 represents the developments. ’ Part of the problem is undoubtedly due to some of my early transcriptions when I tended to write a sequence like süs, for example, as syus.

The low central vowel /a/, on the other hand, is both the beginning and ending point for the diphthongs /ai/ – /ia/ and /au/ – /ua/, as shown in table 6. Table 6. 4 27 The vowels ü and ö The front rounded vowels /ü/ and /ö/ are the reflex of a lost /p-/ prefix preceding syllables which contain the front unrounded vowels /i/ and /e/. The prefix /p-/ in Proto-Kham (whose original function is unknown) is restricted to syllables with sibilant onsets, a complex onset that is preserved only in modern Maikoti.

4 on syllabification. 2 Nasalization All vowels except /ü/ and /ö/ have nasalized variants. Furthermore, all nasalized vowels are long, having been derived from a lost /*-n/ or /*-≥/ in the coda. Nasalization is marked orthographically by a tilde above the vowel symbol, as in /üî:/, /üe :/, and /üo:/ (see table 5). ’ In such cases, the syllable is closed by a glottal stop – ba÷. 26 2 Segmental phonology Table 5. Nasalized vowels ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– front central back –round +round –round +round high üî: üï: üu: mid üe: ü˙: üo: low üa: ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Following are contrastive sets, one oral and one nasal: (23) ORAL: a.

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